Forest Management

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Policy And Strategy

To ensure sustainable, HSK managed "forest management policies and strategies for Peninsular Malaysia" was proposed in 1976 and subsequently received in addition to the national forestry policy. The policy is designed to ensure full use of forest resources, sustainable production, the benefits of maximum social and economic and environmental stability. Management policy and objektif-objektifnya received is as follows:

  1. To manage and use of forest resources in order to obtain maximum benefit based on natural ability and management plans as well as the extensive use of forest land.
  2. To determine potential outcomes with assessment based on a deep and systematic reviews of the forest resource, the ketumbuhannya and other related factors.
  3. To mengusahasilkan forest conservative by way of selective cutting choose to leave sufficient natural seedlings in accordance with the berekonomik to ensure that the allowable basic forest resources.
  4. To use with a forest management system preferably have been formulated based on the information obtained from the techniques of integrated management and operational research.
  5. To recover the forest that have poor forest and allows harvesting in order to produce the minimum stock equal to twenty-five (25) trees per hectare for a trading species berperepang 45 cm at chest to guarantee timber production berekonomik.
  6. To establish forest plantations with species fast trading and promoting tumbesar pelbagaigunaan forests and preservation of the natural environment.

In accordance with the policy and forest management objectives mentioned above, the following strategies have been formulated:

  1. Forest lands are open for agricultural projects must be carefully planned so that extraction can be controlled as well as ensure the maximum deployment. Rules for slash-has been an area will be complied with in full.
  2. Wooded land that is not involved with agricultural projects and others will serve as PERMANENT FOREST ESTATE and will be managed so as to bring maximum results while preserving the quality of the environment.
  3. A forest inventory system-intensive with the intensity of at least 10 per cent will be conducted prior to felling, especially for virgin forests, as the basis for determining the forest management and silvicultural system the most effective manner. Priority will be given to restoration of natural forests through retention of left to the incoming queue.
  4. Census of seedlings will be intensified over the forest allows harvesting to determine its class status, as well as content and silvicultural treatment will be carried out.
  5. Complete study will be conducted to determine the crop area and the selection of the appropriate species.
  6. The appropriate forest areas are determined to dipelbagaigunakan in line with the increasing needs of recreation, conservation of land and water and also preservation of flora and fauna.
  7. In-depth studies will be continued over the forest productivity growth and production as well as research and other aspects of forest management and development are also underway.

Virgin Forest Dipterokarpa forest or mature forest (climax forest) is not the main goal in crop production. Knowledge and understanding of the forest recovery round until reaching maturity is important in determining the development of natural forests. This knowledge is useful for the management of a forest area. The goal of the most preferred in the sustainable forest management is to obtain a balanced annual allowable rate with sustainable production rate so that the mean annual increase equivalent to the annual allowable. In the case that the composition of the production is not necessarily equal to the mature forest.


Forests in Peninsular Malaysia have begun systematically since the Forestry Department established in 1901. Practices of forest management and conservation which emphasise the aspects of ecology and the environment have been enacted to guarantee the service and sustainable production.

In the early 1920s, management of forest resources by means of Departmental Improvement Felling (of) was carried out to improve the quality of the content of the forest stand. Tree species shoddy removed in stages to assist the growth of valuable trees such as Noebalanocarpus heimii and trees the jaras berpasaran. This practice then stopped because have been found less appropriate as a result of increased demand for firewood and jaras in tahun1930an. Therefore, where appropriate forest management in Commercial Regeneration Felling (CRFS) was adopted that involves felling jaras gradually within 5 years before the forest pengusahasilan. However in areas where there is no market for this type of Regeneration, then the Departmental Improvement Felling Felling or Reneration (RIF) where the opening is more pronounced silara followed by cutting small plants.

After the Pacific war, Regeneration practices Improvement Felling (RIF) have stopped following the growing of the raw materials with the growing number of sawmilling and the use of heavy machinery in the pengusahasilan forest. In addition, it was found that the forest areas destroyed during the Japanese occupation, as well as open spaces due to storm-stricken trees are sized jaras. Trees grew rapidly from seedlings that are not damaged during logging and became superior plants (dominant) while berpasaran species that slower growth be partial plant (sub-dominant). For example, seedlings Meranti (Shorea spp) quickly grow once the umbrella open. These factors have contributed to the drafting of the Peer System of Malaya or Malaya the Uniform System (MUS) in the tahun1948. Basically this system is to change the tropical rainforests and contributes complex rich in various species of trees with varying age peer to forest age.

MUS involves felling all mature tree species measuring 45 cm ppd in once selective cutting and release of children of the selected trees of various ages from different types of light and medium-hard wood that needs light. This operation followed by selective cutting menggelang-poison all the perennial trees and species not berpasaran measuring 15cm ppd up. Forest After selective cutting inventory carried out in the period of 2 to 5 years after selective cutting to ensure the seedlings on the ground is sufficient and hence to determine the appropriate silvicultural treatments.




Peer system of malaya formerly focus on young seedlings which will replace existing stands and silvicultural treatment towards dependent children of breeding seeds and is sometimes ignore the large trees and its natural. Therefore the large trees have been digelang-poison to open the umbrella to children the seeds. At present this technique is less used and silviculture treatments devoted to the preservation of forest resources. The workflow involved in modified MUS.

This management system is appropriate and effective in forests Contributes Dipterokarpa but not so for Dipterokarpa Forest Hill due to the hilly nature of the area of the main and high berkecerunan, the content of volatile stocks, lack of natural child before harvesting, the lack of natural child after logging due to ignorance of the flowering season and high mortality rate during the pengusahasilan forests in steep and wide spaces and a low rate of life especially for the type of Meranti Seraya Shorea curtisii). The opening of the rampant patronage, especially in high risk area will add soil erosion and will encourage the growth of scrub and cluster-cluster Bertam (Eugeissona triste).

Difficulties arising from the management of silvicultural and environmental conservation in modified MUS in Forest Hill, found to be conducive to large-scale investment in dancing the forestry sector as a long round of selective cutting that wishes to forest areas. In view of the increasingly limited land area, one of the ways to get quick returns is by way of menyngkatkan turn rate allowable allowable or add in any one round. One of the significant changes in the management of tropical forest in Peninsular Malaysia in recent times is that with the availability of a wide variety of flora and species of timber it is not necessarily a negative impact on the policies and strategies of national wood production in the future. On the other hand, the forest is made up of various types of plants will be able to control the preservation of land and water resources as well as expanding the use of timber species in the timber industry in the future.

The development of wood processing technology as well as the use of more sophisticated wood that is not the current market will produce goods of value in the future either in or outside the State. Thus, the selective management system (SMS) was introduced in 1978 to enable regime-allowable regime more flexible and meet the purpose of preservation of the environment as well as benefit from daripermintaan against wood. More importantly, this system does not encourage menggelang-poison for trees there are market, this will preserve the wood and genetic resources for the future.



SMS has been developed to ensure sustainable forest production by optimizing forest development. It requires the selection of the regime-management regime (allowable limit limit) based on forest inventory data before allowable to secure adequate stand for the remaining allowable future while maintaining a balance of ecology and the environment.

To determine the minimum allowable limits most appropriate under this system, Forest Inventory Before selective cutting (Pre-F) should be carried out in order to get an accurate assessment of the parameters the contents of dibanci forest, for all types of trees berperepang 5 cm ppd over and berperepang trees less than 5 cm ppd to the height of at least 15cm. fisiografi information such as gradient, height, type of land and river flow should be recorded.

Based on the inventory data and other data about the market and socio-economic conditions, a management regime (allowable limit limit) shall be determined for the achievement of the set goals. Map-stock is also available for the purpose of allocation of a small compartment to several blocks based on the content of trees and or classes of greatness.

Thus, forest management in conservative this is expected to provide the following benefits:-

  • The preservation and maintenance of forest resources;
  • Reduction in the cost of forest rehabilitation works;
  • Guarantee the stability and quality of the environment;
  • Reduction of current wastage and logging:
  • Optimum use of forest resources.



In the adoption of SMS, to ensure the second selective cutting can be carried out in the next 25-30 years after the first selective cutting with an economical volume production range from 30-40 m3/ha, the following steps are usually observed:-

  1. Limits of allowable limits for species from the Group dipterokarpa is not less than 50 cm ppd, except Chengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) where the allowable limit of not less than 60 cm.
  2. Limits of allowable limits for species of the group are not dipterokarpa is not less than 45 cm ppd.
  3. Stocks stand a is set to main trees for the next round of selective cutting is not less than 10 trees per hectare that consists of commercial trees are lush and straight with berperepang between 30 cm to 45 cm ppd.
  4. The difference between the allowable threshold limit species dipterokarpa and non-dipterokarpa is not less than 5 cm.
  5. The total percentage of dipterokarpa in the stand a measuring 30 cm-45 cm ppd must be equal to or higher than the original stand.

Nowadays SMS as one of HER adopted forest management system focusing on large area with the use of machinery as well as create many employment opportunities as well as to expand the scope of employment. This increasingly sophisticated operations to be used by local people in the transfer of technology and increase management skills. The workflow involved in Modified MUS.

Forest planning and integrated review of operations carried out in Peninsular malaysia so far gives a clear picture that the pengusahasilan Forest Hills with a period of selective cutting 25-40 years and allowable limits will produce an appropriate volume an economical as well as the stand lived from medium-sized berpasaran trees sufficient for selective cutting. With an average growth rate of perepang 0.5-1.0 cm per annum and growth of 2.0-2.5 m3/ha/year gross volume of commercial trees berperepang 30 cm and above were found to be 3/4 of the Hill forests capable of producing 40-45 m3/ha within 30 years where is almost comparable to the average production of virgin forest. However, the rate of damage to medium-sized trees during logging need to be controlled so that it does not exceed 30%.


Mangroves have successfully managed dikebanyakan States in Peninsular Malaysia for the production of mangrove wood charcoal, firewood jaras and based on the principle of sustainable management. In the State Silver rounds allowable for Mangroves range from 20 to 30 years for the State of Selangor and Johor each is 25 and 20 years. Mature trees are often cut down runs out (clear-felled) according to specific areas. However only tree 7.5 cm sized more than perepang will be issued. Mangrove wood for charcoal cut all 1.6 m and 1.5 m firewood. Stumps and logging residues after selective cutting will be left to decomposition. If after two (2) years found no seedlings growth or inadequate then these areas will be planted with species of Rhizophora. Usually one or two penjarangan to jaras done before final carried out selective cutting and penjarangan this is done, for example, in the area of Mangroves Matang, Perak with wood all 1.2 m for the forest age 15 years and 1.8 m for a 20-year old forest.



The level of Sustainability (Sustainable Level) based on current research findings, conservative estimates Mean Additional Annual [Mean Annual Increment (MAI)] for managed forests under allowable queue (SMS) 30 year was 2.55 m3/ha/year. Thus, expected yield production of wood after taking into account allowable damage 30% (short stumps, logs etc.) is 33.3 m3/ha. However, for a forest managed by rotation allowable 55 years (MUS), conservative estimates Mean Additional Annual is 1.75 m3/ha/year and thus the expected production of wood after taking into account 30% allowable damage forest is 67.4 m3/ha. The expectation of this production was comparable to the average current timber production in Peninsular Malaysia. It is believed that, with the development of technology and innovation, wood processing more sophisticated as well as changes in the patterns of use of wood in the forestry sector in the future then wood not current be berpasaran young developing international and domestic markets. Therefore, the issuance of forest produce of the HSK is an estimated 4-5 million m3 per year.

To manage forest resources in Peninsular Malaysia with more intensive under the concept of sustainable production forest area in the HSK, classified according to the class of the gradient as well as one or more of the classes of forest functions as required under section 10 (1) of the national forestry Act, 1984:-

(i) wood pengusahasilan Forests under sustainable procurement.

(ii) protection forest land.

(iii) the forest reclaimed the land.

(iv) flood control Forest.

(v) water catchment Forests.

(vi) protection forest wildlife.

(vii) the virgin forest reserved forest.

(viii) forest.

(ix) Forest education.

(x) Forest research.

(xi) Forest for the purposes of the Federation



(In accordance with section 10, the national forestry Act 1984)


  1. Hutan Wood Production Under Procurement Berkekalan184, 832
  2. Hutan Protection Tanah23, 291
  3. Reclaimed Flood-
  4. Flood-Control 
  5. Air121 Catchment, 904 
  6. Hutan of wildlife
  7. Hutan Forest Reserve Dara3, 676
  8. Hutan Lipur2, 274
  9. Hutan Pelajaran2, 999
  10. Penyelidikan3, 638
  11. Hutan for the purposes of the Federation-


TOTAL 342, 613



Virgin Forest reserved forest (VJR) was established in 1950s. the establishment of this is to ensure the country's few virgin forests are protected and always remain to reflect the features and types of forests of Peninsular Malaysia are known as well as a uniquely for the purpose of teaching, research and extension.

To ensure the achievement of the objectives of its establishment, the areas existing VJR must be maintained and preserved through the implementation of optimum management si8stem.

For the State of Kedah Darul Aman, a total of 14 VJR area, with an area of 3 hectares which includes 675.6 various types of forests was established for the purpose.